Product Overview

Product Overview

The Self-Determination Assessmentinternet (SDAi) includes three instruments that measure cognitive, behavioral and affective traits associated with self-determination. These characteristics are assessed from the perspectives of students, parents and advisors. The instruments can be administered together or individually. The self-determination assessment approach focuses on and delineates those variables related to self-determination that are within the individual's control and are potential targets for instructional intervention.

Model Components

Self-Determination has been defined as “the ability to identify and achieve goals based on a foundation of knowing and valuing yourself” (Field & Hoffman, 1994, p. 164). A Model for Self-Determination illustrates its five major components: (I) Know Yourself, (II) Value Yourself, (III) Plan, (IV) Act, and (V) Experience Outcomes and Learn. Each of these components is further divided into sub-components.

Assessment Instruments

The three instruments included in the SDAi underwent extensive development and revision.

Self-Determination Student Scale (SDSS)

The Self-Determination Student Scale is a 92-item self-report instrument taken online by the student that measures both affective (feelings, emotions) and cognitive (beliefs) aspects of self-determination. The SDSS yields an overall score that allows advisors to look at a student's self-determination skill level in relation to students who share similar demographics. The SDSS also yields five sub-scale scores that relate to the five components of self-determination: (I) Know Yourself, (II) Value Yourself, (III) Plan, (IV) Act, and (V) Experience Outcomes and Learn. The Self-Determination Student Scale (SDSS) can be administered successfully on it's own or along with the SDPPS and SDAPS.

Self-Determination Parent Perception Scale (SDPPS) & Self-Determination Advisor Perception Scale (SDAPS)

The Self-Determination Assessmentinternet has separate scales for advisors and parents. These two instruments are 30 item questionnaires that require the parent or advisor to rate the child/student on a five point likert scale (0=low, 4=high) on a variety of components related to the model. By having students, parents, and advisors participate in the development and implementation of its self-determination intervention plan, each member has an "investment" in the success of the plan.


The SDAi was developed at Wayne State University by Alan Hoffman, Ed.D., Sharon Field Hoffman, Ed.D. and Shlomo Sawilowsky, Ph.D.

The Self-Determination Assessmentinternet can be used as:

  • a diagnostic measure to help identify barriers to self-determination;
  • a basis for developing individual plans for both remediation and enrichment;
  • a pre-post achievement measure for students participating in intervention programs or courses;
  • a foundation for improving successful outcomes;
  • a tool to involve and engage parents; and
  • a tool to discover similarities and discrepancies among students, parents, and advisors.

Self-Determination Assessmentinternet

Alan Hoffman, Ed.D.
Sharon Field Hoffman, Ed.D.
Shlomo Sawilowsky, Ph.D.
Age Range
Administration Time
Self-Determination Student Scale (SDSS)
    30 to 50 minutes
Self-Determination Parent Perception Scale (SDPPS)
    10 to 15 minutes
Self-Determination Advisor Perception Scale (SDAPS)
    10 to 15 minutes
Qualification Level
No specific qualifications necessary
Online (Administration and Scoring)

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