Product Overview

Product Overview

The Self-Determination Assessmentinternet (SDAi) includes three instruments that measure cognitive, behavioral and affective traits associated with self-determination. These characteristics are assessed from the perspectives of students, parents and advisors. The instruments can be administered together or individually. The self-determination assessment approach focuses on and delineates those variables related to self-determination that are within the individual's control and are potential targets for instructional intervention.

If you're interested in an adult scale for focused coaching or training in the workplace, home, and community, we suggest the Self-Determination Adult Scale (SDAS). You can learn more about the SDAS at Longsdale Publishing.

Model Components

Self-Determination has been defined as “the ability to identify and achieve goals based on a foundation of knowing and valuing yourself” (Field & Hoffman, 1994, p. 164). An Action Model for Self-Determination illustrates its five major components: (I) Know Yourself and Your Context, (II) Value Yourself, (III) Plan, (IV) Act, and (V) Experience Outcomes and Learn. Each of these components is further divided into sub-components.

Assessment Instruments

The three instruments included in the SDAi underwent extensive development and revision.

Self-Determination Student Scale (SDSS)

Two options are provided for the Self-Determination Student Scale. The SDSS is geared toward younger students and for those whom it may be more appropriate to provide a simple “that's me” or “that's not me” response. The SDSS-Short Form (SDSS-SF) was normed on students in college settings. The SDSS-SF asks students to respond to 43 items on a five point likert scale that encourages more refined judgements in responses. Both versions of the SDSS provide students with scores for each of the five components of the Self-Determination Action Model as well as a score for the entire instrument. Providing scores for each of the components helps students learn more about their strengths and areas for improvement related to self-determination.

Self-Determination Parent Perception Scale (SDPPS) & Self-Determination Advisor Perception Scale (SDAPS)

The Self-Determination Assessmentinternet has separate scales for advisors and parents. These two instruments are 30 item questionnaires that require the parent or advisor to rate the child/student on a five point likert scale (1=low, 5=high) on a variety of components related to the model. By having students, parents, and advisors participate in the development and implementation of its self-determination intervention plan, each member has an "investment" in the success of the plan.


The SDAi was developed at Wayne State University by Alan Hoffman, Ed.D., Sharon Field, Ed.D. and Shlomo Sawilowsky, Ph.D.

Be sure to visit the authors' web site and blog at

The Self-Determination Assessmentinternet can be used as:

  • a diagnostic measure to help identify barriers to self-determination;
  • a basis for developing individual plans for both remediation and enrichment;
  • a pre-post achievement measure for students participating in intervention programs or courses;
  • a foundation for improving successful outcomes;
  • a tool to involve and engage parents; and
  • a tool to discover similarities and discrepancies among students, parents, and advisors.

Self-Determination Assessmentinternet

Alan Hoffman, Ed.D.
Sharon Field Hoffman, Ed.D.
Shlomo Sawilowsky, Ph.D.
Age Range
SDSS-SF: College and College-Bound
SDSS: Middle and High School

SDAS: Self-Determination Adult Scale
    by Longsdale Publishing
Administration Time
Student Scale-Short Form (SDSS-SF)
    20 to 30 minutes
Student Scale (SDSS)
    30 to 50 minutes
Parent Perception Scale (SDPPS)
    10 to 15 minutes
Advisor Perception Scale (SDAPS)
    10 to 15 minutes
Qualification Level
No specific qualifications necessary
Online (Administration and Scoring)

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User's Manual

Download a PDF of the
SDAi User's Manual.